Disorders and DiseasesGeneral Health Issues

Concussion Meaning, Symptoms, Diagnosis Test and Treatment

What is Concussion? Definition, meaning, Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, Test, and complications of Concussion.

What is a concussion?

Concussion is a mild traumatic injury of head caused by a fall, a jolt, or a blow to the head. Concussion is very common among sports persons such as footballers and athletes. The effects of a concussion can be short-term, lasting only a few hours or a couple of days, or can be long-term, lasting for months or even for years.

A few serious effects of concussion may include loss of memory, problems with balance and coordination, and even coma.

Concussion needs emergency care and immediate medical attention.


How does concussion occur?

Concussions can be caused by many reasons such as vehicle accidents, accidents while playing any sport, falling down, fights, blow to the head, and so on. Our brain tissues are very soft like gelatin, and this organ is protected every day from sudden jolts and bumps by the cerebrospinal fluid inside the skull.

While experiencing a blow or sudden jolt, the brain moves rapidly back and forth in a whiplash-like fashion. It bounces and twists inside skull. This may stretch and damage the delicate cells and structures forming the brain. 

The damage is not only limited to physical changes to the brain, but also chemical changes. Chemical changes to the brain can in turn affect the functionality of the brain.

If sudden bleeding appears in the brain due to the injury, it can be fatal to the person.

Any person who suffers from concussion requires emergency care and immediate medical attention. Patient may need to be under observation for as many days as the doctor deems fit.

The concussion recovery time varies from patient to patient, based on the seriousness of the injury.

The approximate time to recover from a mild concussion is around 20 to 50 days, provided the patient is completely at rest and does not do anything including, reading, or watching T.V.

Severe cases, such as those where the patients suffered from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) can take much more time to heal and may also require rehabilitative care.


What are the causes of concussion?

Common causes of concussion :

  • Fights
  • Falls
  • Playground injuries
  • Car crashes
  • Bike accidents

Sports which can cause concussion:

  • Football
  • Boxing
  • Hockey
  • Soccer
  • Skiing
  • Snowboarding

Who is prone to concussion?

  • People younger than 24 and people older than 75 are at the higher risk for concussion
  • Newborn babies or children up to 14 years of age
  • Athletes
  • Sportsperson
  • Person who drink and drive
  • Who ride a bike without wearing a helmet
  • People who do not wear seat belts while driving a car

What is post-concussion syndrome?

The Post-concussion syndrome is also known as a postconcussive syndrome (PCS) is a set of various symptoms, such as headaches, dizziness, ringing in the ears, that can last for few weeks and even months to year after the concussion occurs.


What are the symptoms of concussion?

Physical Symptoms

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred Vision
  • Sensitivity to light and Noise
  • Drowsiness
  • Ringing in ears
  • Balance Problem
  • Lack of coordination
  • Slurred speech
  • Clumsiness

Emotional Symptoms 

  • Irritability
  • Nervousness
  • Mood Swing
  • Easily upset / Angry
  • Highly Sensitive

Cognitive Symptoms

  • Difficulty in Concentrating
  • Confusion
  • Personality Changes
  • Memory loss
  • Delayed reaction to stimuli

Other Symptoms

  • Sleeping more than usual
  • Sleeping less than usual 
  • Difficulty falling asleep
  • Temporary loss of consciousness
  • Coma

Symptoms in Children

  • Crying when you move baby’s head
  • Irritability
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Bump on the head
  • Behavior Changes
  • Excessive crying
  • Loss of Interest in Playing
  • Dizziness
  • Balance Problem
  • Blurry Vision
  • Sensitive to Light and Noise
  • Dazed look
  • Confused
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Mood Change

How to diagnose concussion?

If you notice any of the above symptoms of concussion in someone, immediately consult to a general practitioner. Depending on the severity of the patient’s condition doctor may be referred to a Neurologist, Neurosurgeon, or Neuropsychologist.

Doctor may diagnose with some general questioning regarding Injury, Primary check up and with symptoms appears. Other than this Doctor may ask patients to undergo following tests.


Complications of Concussion

  • Problems walking
  • Concentration difficulties
  • Memory loss
  • Delayed reaction to stimuli
  • Balance problems
  • Seizures
  • Draining of blood
  • Clear fluid from the ears / nose
  • Unequal pupil size
  • Blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to light and noise
  • Abnormal eye movement
  • Lasting confusion
  • Slurred speech
  • Repeated vomiting
  • Brief loss of consciousness after the injury
  • Coma

Treatment for Concussion

For Mild injury, doctor recommend to take complete rest for couple of weeks.

If It is severe then doctor may also ask to be hospitalized until patient comes out of severity.

For Pain, doctor prescribed some Painkillers.

For cases of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), the doctor may suggest surgery (to remove clotted blood, repair skull fractures, and relieve pressure in the skull) and also rehabilitative care. 

Medications prescribed by the doctor for TBIs such as anti-depressants, anti-anxiety medications, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsants.

Note : This information is for Information purpose only, always consult your doctor in such situations. Thank you for reading “Concussion” 

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